Glossary

Greek Glossary

 

Agon – Competition

Agora – Designated part of the city where merchants could sell wares and civic announcements were made.

Anassa – Queen

Anax – King/Emperor/Tribal Leader

Auloi – Double-reed flute

Axine – Battle axe

Carneia – Festival in Sparta held in honor of Apollo

Chiton – A single rectangle of woolen or linen fabric that is either wrapped or tied around the body.

Chlamys – A short cloak that was draped over the tops of one’s arms and pinned at the right shoulder. Most commonly worn by men.

Chthonic – In, under, or beneath the Earth

Dory – A three-meter-long spear used by the infantry of Spartan soldiers. Commonly made with wood, it often had an iron spearhead, and a bronze butt-spike.

Ephor – An elected Spartan politician

Gymnasion – The gymnastic school in which Grecians practiced a number of physical activities and trained. Mostly found in Sparta.

Helot – Subjugated population ruled by Spartans. Sometimes slaves, though often they worked in Spartan agriculture.

Himation – A heavier, much larger cloak than the chlamys. Worn by both sexes. Could be used as both a cloak, or in the absence of a chiton, wrapped around the body and over shoulders.

Hyacinthia – Three-day festival in Sparta celebrating Spartan heroes, particularly in war.

Kakos – Coward

Kalyptra – A thin headdress worn as a veil.

Kepos – Cultivated bit of land between houses, much like a garden or yard. Often sacred to the household.

Kerykeion – A Caduceus/staff

Kline – Greek couch, much like a lounge chair.

Koprophage – Greek insult. A person who eats dung.

Kosmetikos – Greek make-up/cosmetics

Kothornoi/kothornos – High-laced sandal/boot with thick soles that often went as high as the knee.

Kottabos – Greek drinking game.

Lectica – A raised litter held up by servants for travel. Commonly used by Greek nobles

Mana Mou –  Term of endearment for a mother-figure; “My Mother”

Meander (The) – Also known as the “Greek Key.” A pattern typically found among frescoes, jewelry, or along the hemlines of clothes worn by royalty.

Mesogeios – Mediterranean Sea

Mothakes – Social class of people in Greece; “Non-Spartan.” Not allowed many of the same civil rights as Full-Spartans, but still allowed many liberties.

Naus – Ship

Ochre – Powder make-up for the eyelids and cheeks

Oikos – Ancient Greek household

Oxybelés – Catapult

Paian – Battle song

Paidonomos – The headmaster of Spartan military training

Pantheon – Domed, circular temple

Peplos – a full-length dress that hangs loosely around the shoulders and is tied loosely around the waist.

Petteia – Game similar to checkers, chess and backgammon.\

Rhomphaia – Falchion

Salphinx – Trumpet

Suagroi – Person with a romantic attachment to pigs

Symmachos – Ally

Vrykolakas – Undead being – often equated with vampire

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